We know that there is an unbelievably intricate number of elements working in perfect composition to allow life on Earth to exist. A fraction closer to the sun, we would be fried. A little further away, and the world would be too cold to support any forms of life. These are just a few examples of the ludicrous, if almost impossible, elements ‘coincidentally’ working together to allow for life on earth. All of the mathematical, physical and chemical calculations in this area, required for life as we know it to exist, are mind-boggling!
Some people put this down to a ‘multiverse theory’. Essentially, this is the idea that, during the Big Bang, thousands, if not millions of billions, of different universes were created. Perhaps it was just ours, by sheer chance, that everything came together in perfect sync. What was it that Einstein, one of the greatest scientists known to man said? That coincidences are ‘God’s greatest calling cards’?
The author, Peter James, goes into great depth exploring this theory further. After discussing what might classify as ‘absolute proof of God’s existence’ with a vast number of scientists, faith leaders and researchers, he writes a book that touches upon this theory.
He writes, in effect:
There’s a category mistake here. In quantum physics, the effect of the observer is interesting. If you look at something, the fact that you are looking at it changes it. A Paley’s Watch kind of situation. For example, if you take a Ford motor car and a man which has never seen one nor knows nothing about modern engineering, he might imagine that there is a God, Mr Ford, inside the car, making the engine run. He might further imagine that when it ran well, it’s because Mr Ford liked him and when it didn’t, Mr Ford was angry at him for some particular reason. If he then took engineering classes and dismantled the engine, he’d find no Mr Ford, but the result of internal combustion. But, if he then decided that there is no reason to believe the existence of Mr Ford at all, he’d be making a category mistake. Because if Mr Ford had never existed to design the mechanisms, none would exist.
Effectively, in this Multiverse Theory we are faced with the same dilemma.
As Schlesinger concludes, such a remarkable unlikelihood paints the way to presume there must have been an intelligent architect involved. And, this is only one example of the numbers that must have been exquisitely balanced on a razors edge (Reasonable Faith, 2014). There are a multitude of examples. However, instead of droning on with the countless instances of proof of fine-design, let us finish with one more simple example. If the force binding protons to neutrons, for example, differed by just 5%, again our Universe would be entirely non-existent. As per the notable physicist, Paul Davies, it seems to us that “there is... powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all... it seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature’s numbers to make the universe. The impression of design is overwhelming.
Even to non-believers, the Atheistic Single Universe Hypotheses, dependent on a matter of chance, is not convincing to say the least. Even Collins who did not intend to use his fine-tuned argument as a proof of God's existence (Collins 1999, 53), depends on the Prime Principle of Confirmation as reason for accepting the Theistic Hypothesis over the Atheistic one.
Essentially, “if anyone claims not to be surprised by the special features the universe has, he is hiding his head in the sand. These special features are surprising and unlikely” (David Deutsch).